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crust is very different from continental. It is much thinner and was formed over the last 200 million years.
Although the most surface of the ocean floor is flat there are two elements of relief: ridges and
Harry Hess, Professor at Princeton University (USA) in 1950 suggested a theory of expansion of the
ocean floor. As per his theory the ocean floor is constantly expanded by water ridges. With such paces
either the Earth quickly enlarged or something occurred with new oceanic crust. Hess considered that
oceanic crust was destroyed at the same speed that was formed. Hess excluded the possibility of increasing
and expanding the Earth so he suggested that crust movement is connected with convection flows in the
mantle. Convection flows is a circulation of liquid or plastic material similar to that can be seen in boiling
mush which is created under the influence of heat upflows.
Along with assumption of plates’ tectonics convective heat and mass transfer suppose was developed
otherwise it is difficult to explain the relative movement of the plates. Herewith it is assumed that deep-
focused earthquakes with depths of up to 700km occur in cold submersing plates of lithosphere. However
if plates submerging into the deep layers of the mantle existed in fact this process would have been typical
for continental plates and constantly would occur throughout geological history of the Earth it’s unlikely
that rocks aged billions years will remain on its surface especially of the age of the Earth. In this case the
entire surface of the continents from the period of the formation of the Earth would submerge into the
J.Carr in 1968 studying physical properties of the mantle, boundaries formation in Moho and other
data concluded that the idea of the modern convection processes in mantle is unsound. Comparing
tectonic history of the number of continents he concluded that there was no convection in the mantle at
least during the last 900 million years [22, 23]
Behavior of the remembered Pangaea is described by the followers as follows. A common continent
appeared on one side of our planet. The continent cracked and separated over time and its parts spreading
achieved the present location. Think about it Pangaea was formed on one side of the planet, the other had
been covered by water. Is it real? More precise study of Pangea edges show that it might be assembled
again evenly. It means that Pangaea shapes are the same from all sides. The only remark is that this
continent had had to cover not the Earth as it is but a planet of a much smaller diameter. This small planet
would be completely covered with the continent. Thus an assumption on expansion of the Earth in double
The above noted ideas on development of continents and oceans are based on the mantle
convection in one form or another. However numerous proofs for the initial formation of continents
followed by drifts were found in the second part of XX century. The following assumptions are historically
fascinating. It is possible that provisions given in the assumptions may be used as backgrounds for
development of new theories. As an example is one of the quite well-known idea is the Earth expansion
and it may be supposed finally be right.
3.2. The Earth Expansion Theory
One of most probable theories is that continents were formed due to the Earth expansion. It is
assumed that the size of the Earth in the course of its formation was initially much smaller. Its diameter
was about in twofold smaller that the preset one. The throughout thickness of its crust formed those times
was 30km. With the increase of the diameter the curst cracked and its parts formed continents. Expansion
as supposed started from the formation of cracks similar to Mid-Atlantic ridge. Double increased diameter
means fourfold increase of its surface while the increment of the surface in the order of values equals to
the area occupied by present continents.
Herewith the increased radius should have to lead to the increase of the volume and decrease of the
density in eight times. Thus with given average density of the Earth of 5500kg/m3 this value used to be
44000g/m3. Such considerable change of density leads to insuperable constraints at least taking into
account the correctness of the modern physical laws for the existence of the Earth. Acceleration of the
force of gravity on the Earth surface to the beginning of the expansion (Paleozoic) should be in four times
more that presently and the moment of inertia used to be in four times less. Study of the subsoil does not
prove nor such high acceleration of the force of gravity during Paleozoic (plants and animals appearance
was similar to the present view and form) neither such short moment of inertia. If it would have an impact
on the speed of earth rotation it should be much higher compared with the present value .
Studying all variants calculations were fulfilled in order to find out whether the large-scale expansion
of the Earth might be explained by chemical changes or phase transitions in the Earth subsoil. The
calculations were based on a simple comparison of the energy required to expand with the energy of
Difference between the energy of gravity in both cases to some extent depends on the density
distribution inside the Earth. Bech  found that any reasonable density distribution may increase the
radius to 100km while increasing it to 1000km or more requires a very different density distribution. Cook
and Erdley  concluded that in gradual increase of the Earth's radius by 20% would require such amount
of energy that would be needed for fission of all chemical compounds in Earth molecules.
Aside from thermal processes the extension was reasoned by dependence on the slow changing of
gravitational constant – G supposed by number of papers on space study. Investigating relativity theory
Jordan  concluded that G value in Newton law of universal gravitation tis value is not constant, as it is
commonly considered, but in reality it is variable because it is slowly reducing since the formation of the
Universe. Same Dyke contended.
Bech calculated the number of energy coming along with such reduction of the gravitation constant
and again came to the conclusion that due this the Earth radius may not increase on more than 100km.
Therefore if there had been such an expansion at the supposed scale so a very different unknown energy
source should be seek .
3.3. Basic Assumptions for the Expansion of the Earth
Existing theory of continental driftage considers the whole process of the movement of continents
assuming the constant gravitation value. So, in these processes no impact of decreasing density of
gravitational flow is taken into account. However geophysical processes occurred in the course of
formation of our planet and continents under permanently changed density of the gravitational flow. This
factor has given a significant difference in origin of all above processes from conventional and played main
role in continents formation.
To view the whole picture, we need theoretically simulate the formation of our planet in the light of
gravitation density changing. There is basis to suppose that the level of own gravitation of our planet after
its formation was excessively high. Therefore the density of the planet matter was high and its diameter
was significantly less than the present dimensions.
The correctness of this assumption is confirmed by the results of the research data derived from
Kola super-deep well (CSDW) reached 12 262 meter. Geological forecast of the CSDW section showed
that the boundary that gives the highest reflection during seismic sounding is the layer where granites are
translating to more solid basalts. In reality less solid and less fractured rocks Archean gneisses laid there.
This is radically new geological-geophysical information that allows in different way to interpret data of
deep geophysical survey. 
Unexpected, radically new was data derived on the process of formation of subsoil in deep layers of
the Earth crust. So, at depths of 9-12 km were found fractured rocks of high porosity, saturated by highly
mineralized ground waters. A sample taken from the surface layers had properties different from the rock
massif. Close to the surface it does not exposed to significant mechanical tensions met in the deep layers.
Even creating in a special chamber deep conditions the measured parameters will be different from those
met in the rock massif. There is no kern obtained from 100 meters in the drilled wells. In super-deep well
over 5k the average kern cropped of about 30%, and from depths over 9 km there were only separate
pieces 2-3 cm thick reflecting more robust rock layers. So, kern obtained from SDW does not give full
complete information about the deep rocks which radically differ from the surface layers. Data about deep
rocks is reflected completely differently by seismic sounding.
Heat rates of the subsoil and deep temperature distribution within the areas of basaltic shields
depicted to be different. At depth over 6km temperature gradient comprises 200C per each kilometer
instead of expected (as in the surface layers) 160C per 1 km. Revealed that half of the heat flow has
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