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Thus the state the central ionization layer has got the same consistent pattern. It is expressed in
availability of disturbances in the layer within twenty four hours and more, decrease of the layer before
earthquake and decrease of layer ionization during earthquake. This may also mean that the causes of
earthquakes occurrence are same.
Our planet is surrounded by ionosphere is a layer of the low density ionized gas located at heights
from 50 to 500km. Large-power electric currents flowing up there form Polar lights in the North. Within
the atmospheric layers mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere air is ionized known as endothermic ions
formation from neutral atoms or molecules. Light emission is expressed in the speed of movement of
electrical flows. Sometimes it reaches several thousand square kilometers per second. Ionosphere and
below ozone layer absorb UV and x-ray radiation of the Sun.
Mainly the Earth atmosphere is ionized due to UV and x-ray radiation of the Sun mostly occurred in
the solar chromosphere and corona. In addition, particle’s flows during the solar bursts as well as cosmic
rays and meteoritic particles change the rate of ionization in the upper atmosphere layers.
Ionosphere is a mixture of gas of neutral atoms and
molecules and quasi-neutral plasma which number of negatively
charged particles approximately equal to the number of positively
charged particles. Number of charged particles: oxygen atoms,
nitrogen oxide molecules and free electrons per one air cubic
centimeter in average is 1015-1016. 
Ionosphere was discovered in the beginning of 20th century
when two groups of scientists: British E. Appleton and M. Barnet
and Americans G. Bright and M. Tiew experimentally found a
layer that reflected waves at 50 km height. The layer was so named
Kennelly-Heaviside layer known to us as ionosphere layer E.
Atmosphere conductivity depends on the degree of the air ionization. That is why air conductivity in
ionosphere is in 1012 times higher than nearby the Earth surface.
Ionosphere (Fig.4) is nonuniform: it is divided in 3 layers of maximal ionization: D, E and F. But In
space between these layers atmosphere ionization degree remains very high. Frequently forms extensive
sporadic electron mass so named as cloud of electrons.
Layer D is the lowest ionosphere layer. Its boundaries are at 60 to 90 km above the Earth. Ionization
of layer D is weak.
Ionization of layer D is derived due to hydrogen rays of Lyman-alpha series with wavelength
121.5nm and nitrogen oxide (NO). At high solar activity N2 and O2 are also ionized. Maximal density of
charged particles is 102-103cm3.
Layer D is unstable. Maximal ionization is achieved during daytime when solar emission is largest. In
the Polar Regions subsequent to solar proton events (protons emitted by the Sun, accelerated by very high
energies during solar bursts or coronal mass emissions) layer D ionization can reach excessively high level.
Such events in the lower ionosphere are called “polar absorption cap”. At this time from 24 to 48 hours
absorptivity of radio signals is much stronger over the polar regions covering by broadcasting of huge
areas. In the night residual ionization is left by galactic cosmic rays. Sometimes ionization is completely
Second ionosphere layer is the Layer E. The lower boundary layer E is above the upper boundary of
underlying layer D. The upper boundary is at 120km height.
Ionization of layer E is similar to ionization of layer D: solar short-wave or x-ray emissions, and
long-wave UV. Plasma density here is higher up to 105 particles per cm3, but in the night ionization degree
greatly falls down but still enough strong to reflect radio waves. Ionic recombination (the process reverse
to ionization) in layer E is very fast, so in night ions density can be reduced to 103 cm3. Beneath this level
ionization is not reduced due to constant diffusion (movement) of charged particles from the overlying
At heights of 100-110km extensive interlayers or clouds of higher ionization are formed periodically
covering hundreds square kilometers. This is so-called layer Es or sporadic E. The layer is characterized by
high electronic concentration (ne~105cm3). Its thickness and life are negligible however at Equator it is
present almost continuously, while in middle latitudes during the summer it is present with rare breaks
daily, in high latitudes appears irregularly at night. Electron clouds of layer Es may move under the
influence of atmospheric tides at a speed of to 250 km/h.
The uppermost layer of ionosphere is layer F. Nowadays this layer is generally called ionosphere that
lays at heights of 130 to 140 km. Within this layer at heights of 150 to 200km the maximum air ionization
degree is achieved within the entire Earth atmosphere. However with diffusion charged particles from this
area penetrate at considerable distances up and down. Layer F consists of atomical oxygen, hydrogen
protons and helium ions formed under the solar emissions.
At night almost all charged particles are concentrated at heights of 300
to 400km within the layer so-called F2 where ionization also goes under
cosmic rays, meteors, etc. Lying at heights to 250km layer of charged particles,
called F , disappears at night (Fig.5). Thus, in night within the ionospheric
layer F there is only one area with the density of charged particles that comes
up to 105-106 cm3, in day time there two such areas.
Such changes of ionosphere at night may cause strong earthquakes
which are proven by statistical data.
That is why most crushing seismic events happen at night.
Within the upper ionospheric layer such fascinating processes as Polar
lights and night sky glow take place, as well as ionospheric magnetic storms
with rapid fluctuations of magnetic field. All three processes depend on the solar wind therefore are
strongly exposed to variations.
On the Sun plasma emerges and electromagnetic shortwave emissions arise periodically. During the
high activity visual brightness of the some areas on the Sun increased in several times and within UV and
x-ray range the power increases tenfold. Such processes are called Sun bursts last from several minutes to
one -two hours.
In Sun burst solar plasma mainly consists of protons, electrons, and other elementary particles. These
have a strong effect on all layers of the Earth atmosphere. Electromagnetic emission of the flare is
observed in 8 min after the blast. In visible light the flash is visualized on the disc of the Sun. High UV and
x-ray radiation rapidly increase ionization of ionosphere.
2.3. Interrelation of Ionosphere and the Earth Magnetic Field
It is established that local and regional abnormalities in the Earth magnetic field are caused by rocks
of different magnetic properties laid in the Earth crust. Crystal, volcanic and metamorphic rocks highly
contain ferromagnetic material (magnetite). The latter involves rapid increase of the magnetic field
changing it. Different magnetic properties of rocks, laying depth, thickness and shape lead to variety of
magnetic abnormalities. Therefore magnetic abnormalities are often found along big tectonic faults,
obviously connected with discontinued conductivity of rocks at the edges of tectonic plates.
Earthquakes data were studied and finding shown that seismic events occurred with disturbance of
geomagnetic field (planetary magnetic storms observed) coinciding with the most intensive phase of the
disturbances. Ionosphere also was exposed to disturbance that was expressed in reduced ionization of the
middle lower layers.
The analysis of meteorological conditions had shown that earthquakes took place under very similar
baric conditions during deep cyclone accompanied by geomagnetic disturbances in ionosphere.
Atmospheric pressure spread over the surface in such a way that earthquakes occurred at boundaries of
areas of highest and lowest pressures. Atmospheric pressure was changed over time and accompanied by
geo-acoustic noise as was recorded in the depths of the earth crust. [10,16]
Disturbances of the Earth magnetic field are also accompanied by changes in ionosphere, which
means that during magnetic storms strong source of ionization is acting. During the flare the hardest
component of x-ray is getting expressively stronger increasing ionization in ionospheric layer in 5 to 10
times. Such changes have a direct impact on density of gravitation flows of the Earth.
Particle’s flows emitted by the Sun are captured by the Earth magnetic field and fill its external
radiation belt. In polar regions for capturing of particles conditions are less favorable. Here electrons and
protons mowing in spiral along the force lines and penetrate into the atmosphere even at relatively low
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