Скачать 0.6 Mb.
The geodynamo model in this paper differs from all the above mentioned models. It represented our
planet with a Central solid core with heat-producing transuranic elements, which quickly rotates eastwards
(see Fig 1.) By its rotation of the core having a rotor function attracts surrounding melted liquid mantle.
Liquid mantle, acting as a transmission agent, gradually transmits the rotation to the entire body of
the planet. At the same time, upper sub-lithosphere (1) and middle layers (2) of the mantle are slowing by
gravity itself (see dashed lines of force Fig.1). Therefore rotation speed of different layers of the planet are
never equalized. Lithosphere acts as a stator of the Dynamo.
The core and lithosphere at different speeds and their interaction are transferred to rotation by liquid
mantle. Liquid mantle of the outer core is exposed to gravitational compression and expansion at different
depths. This process is produced due to intra-atomic energy and motion of free electrons. Mixing in the
mantle forms friction and creates ring currents. The transition speed of the matter in the lower lithosphere
layer will be slightly less, and in the lower mantle layers higher. Such slowing flows form (toric) locked ring
Due to interaction of toroidal electric fields with spiral flows in the outer core dipole cumulative
magnetic field occurs, and its axis almost coincides with the Earth axis. To “start-up” the process even very
weak initial magnetic field is needed. It can be generated due to gyromagnetic effect, when the rotating
body is getting magnetized towards the direction of the axis of its rotation. Such magnetodynamo model
reflects all necessities for its existence and functioning.
Magnetic field in the Earth mantle is maintained in the way similar to dynamo unit with self-actuating
where the coil of wire rotates within the external magnetic field. Then due to electromagnetic induction an
electric current occurs in the coil and forms its own magnetic field. It strengthens the external magnetic
field and the current in the coil also increasing.
Liquid mantle of the planet is not the dynamo unit of course. But if thermal flows are formed in
liquid conductor had different velocities and densities, some system of flows in a conductive liquid does
occur which is similar to the motion of the conductor. When the liquid conductor bearing its related
rotational motion (and it arose due to difference in core and crust speeds) passes the lines of magnetic field
it raises the electric current that creates magnetic field. The latter strengthens the external seed field, which
in its turn empowered electric current and so on. The process will continue till stationary magnetic field
establishes when different dynamic processes will equalize each other.
However, the theory of hydromagnetic dynamo (it is more accurate to say, the hypothesis, since
there are no experimental evidence so far) is not so flexible to prove the whole diversity of observed facts
related to geomagnetism. No way to refer to approximations and subterfuges had which experts are
attempting to reconciled the contraries. Sometimes it seems more convincing the simplest pais de
hypothesis: in the depths of the planet sits devil and turns the huge linear magnet with its horns, causing
abnormalities in the geomagnetic field.
1.2. Characteristics of the Earth Magnetic Field
The Earth magnetic field is characterized by seven parameters. To measure the earth magnetic field
in any point, we need to measure its direction and intensity. These components can be measured in
Oersteds (1 Oersted = 1 Gauss), but usually in nanoTesla (1 NT . 100 000 = 1 Oersted). The intensityof
the magnetic field is around between 25 000 - 65 NT (0.25 to 0.65 Oersted). Geomagnetic field measured
in any point on the Earth surface is a combination of several magnetic fields generated from different
sources. Over90% of the measured field is generated inside the planet and in the Earth crust. This part of
the geomagnetic field is often named as main magnetic field. Main magnetic field changes are slow and can
be described by such mathematical models as (IGRF) - international geomagnetic recommended model
(WMM) - Global magnetic model. Main magnetic field creates within interplanetary environment a cavity
so called magnetosphere where Earth magnetic field predominant in the magnetic field of the solar
Earth magnetic field leads to formation of ionosphere and two belts of charged particles around the Earth.
Internal Equatorial belt with the highest density of particles is located at about 3600 km from the surface
of the planet. It surrounds the Earth by the ring at 35° South latitude 35° North latitude. External belt
mainly consisted of electrons extends at latitudes 65°. Positioning in space, volume and density of particles
in the belt vary greatly, the distance from the Earth fluctuates from 25to50K km. Main protective property
of these belts is that they act as traps for particle incoming from the Sun of high-energies. Magnetic field,
deflecting them from the Earth, attracts them into circulation around the planet.
It is noted that passing from the equator to the pole, the number charged particles fallen on the
Earth slightly increases (about 10%). In the stratosphere the latitudinal effect is in several times bigger than
at the sea level. On the top boarder of atmosphere, the intensity of space rays close to the equator in 5
times less than in the polar zones. It is due to the lack of permanent belts of charged particles above the
polar zones. However, the intensity of the particles’ flow in sub-polar zones is relatively small and not
dangerous for life.
Electrical particles within the magnetic field move by spiral, i.e. its
trajectory as if reeling in cylinder, and force line passes its axis. Radius of such
imaged cylinder depends on the field intensity and energy of the particle. About
99% of energetic particles that “breakthrough” magnetic shield of the Earth are
cosmic rays of galactic origin, and only about 1% is formed in the Sun.  Entire
near-earth space, filled with charged particles moving towards the Earth
magnetic field, is named magnetosphere. It is segregated from interplanetary
space by magnetopause. Particles’ flows (“solar wind”) pass around magnetosphere.
1.3. Changes in the Earth Magnetic Field and Ionosphere
In XVIII century it was observed that the Earth magnetic field may be exposed to short changes.
Varying and inclining such changes sometimes may last for many hours then returning to the initial state.
This process is so called a magnetic storm and its impact is perfectly expressed in Polar lights. Magnetic
storms often start suddenly and simultaneously around the world. In high latitudes during the magnetic
storm Polar lights are seen. They may last few
Solar magnetic storms
minutes, but often visible within a several hours.
Erath magnetic storms
Polar lights vary greatly in form, colour and intensity,
while these features sometimes change rapidly during
the short period. The spectrum of Polar lights
consists of emission lines and bands. Disturbances in
the magnetic field associated with shutoffs of radio
communications in the Polar regions. Such
disturbances occur due to changes in ionosphere thus
evidencing the presence of a strong ionization source
during magnetic storms.
Solar particles’ flow
It was found that more intensively magnetic
storms occur when large groups of spots locate close
to the center of the solar disk. Subsequently it was
observed that storms are not caused by spots but by solar bursts appeared during the formation of the
group of spots. Large emission of solar bursts lead in the Earth ionosphere to rapid additional increase in
ionization. This is accompanied by the flows and disturbances of the general magnetic field. During the
flare the hardest component of the x-rays particularly increases enhancing ionization of the main
ionosphere layer D (in 5-10 times). The layer starts to absorb short radio waves, up to about 100 m, and
reflect km-long waves. The first leads to radio signals decay on the short waves, and the second strengthens
the hearing from distant stations on the long waves. Solar corpuscular emission is also relied by bursts,
causing magnetic storms and Polar lights.
Solar particles flow (red arrows, Fig.2) speed is about 1000km/s.
It reaches the Erath a day after chromospheric burst is seen. This flow is fast moving plasma, which
is restricted by the Earth magnetic field. The particles’ flow in motion is accompanied by its own magnetic
field. The latter restricts the movement of ionized gas spreading across the lines of magnetic field. As a
result particle’ flow stops deforming lines of magnetic field (site 1, Fig.2), i.e. causing the disturbances of
the Earth magnetic field or magnetic storms. Depending on the rate and power of particle’s flow vary
depth and area of deformation.
Disturbances are coming from the Equator dividing into two parts towards Northern and Southern
spheres (circles 1, 2 and 3, Fig.3.) Disturbed magnetic flows of the Earth create magnetic vortexes within
|Новые доказательства в современной теории гравитации - «Природа гравитации и механизм ее влияния»|
891.7kb. Теория состоит из четырех частей
|Новые доказательства в современной теории гравитации - Автореферат Законы гравитации знают все. Однако, не все знают, как и по какому механизму возникает сила гравитации|
551.9kb. Теория состоит из четырех частей
|Новые доказательства в современной теории гравитации - Ualikhanadayev@mail ru 531. 5 +7701 7448799|
392.7kb. Теория состоит из четырех частей
|Новые доказательства в современной теории гравитации - Автореферат Носитель магнитной волны и как возникает магнитное поле, до сих пор наукой не|
284.5kb. Теория состоит из четырех частей
|План Введение 3 Понятие и основные характеристики низшего класса в современной социологической теории 6 Теория социальной стратификации и проблема неравенства 8|
305.8kb. Понятие и основные характеристики низшего класса в современной социологической теории 6
|Инфляция и антиинфляционная политика государства - Актуальность, цели и задачи настоящей курсовой работы определены следующими положениями. Проблема инфляции в современной экономической теории является одной из|
10.5kb. Курсовая по экономической теории
|Способы хозяйствования - Смена способа хозяйствования более прогрессивным это новые отношения, новые структуры, повышение эффективности, новые возможности страны|
33.9kb. Новые политические знания
|Природа гравитации - Р“СЂР°рірёС‚Р°С†РёС вЂ“ ср°РјС‹Р№ Р·Р°РіР°РґРѕС‡РЅС‹Р№ С„РµРЅРѕРјРµРЅ РїСЂРёСЂРѕРґС‹, с рєРѕС‚РѕСЂС‹Рј РјС‹ сс‚Р°р рєРёрір°РµРјсс рїРѕСС‚РѕСРЅРЅРѕ. Р•ср рё РґСЂ|
28.2kb. Приведен краткий обзор теорий гравитации и предложена новая концепция
|San Chad * THEORY OF CONSTANT....Сан Чад * ТЕОРИЯ КОНСТАНТ - Если теорию относительности Эйнштейна поняли еди-ницы, то теорию констант должны понять все, ибо речь идет о существовании человечества, сроки которого определя|
50.5kb. Кратко и популярно о теории констант Сан Чада (д.т.н Черных А.Д.).
|Природа гравитации и механизм ее влияния - Автореферат Законы гравитации знают все. Однако, не все знают, как и по какому механизму возникает сила гравитации|
551.8kb. Носителем гравитационного потока является нейтрино. Земное притяжение образуется в результате экранирования центральным ядром Земли...