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The book will be appreciated in wisdom,
Knowledge is appreciated only by comprehensive
Yousaf Balasaguni, Turkish philosopher
The word “gravitation” is borrowed from Latin “gravitas” that means “weight, gravity”. However
“gravitation” expresses more extensive meaning rather than simply a weight of body. Free falling of bodies on
the Earth at all times has been explained by their mystic gravitating to the Earth. Astronomic observations
have shown that some spheres also attract each other.
Gravitational phenomena during the whole humankind existence has been arouse interest as in its
everyday life a man faces it continuously. Natural science is dealing with two questions thereupon, i.e. the
nature of gravitation and gravitation law. Answer to the first shall clarify the nature of gravitation and its
internal mechanism viz. gravitation field manner. Moreover, some applied facts that shall arise from possible
understanding of essence of gravitational process will have to be defined. For intense, would it be possible to
increase or decrease the weight of bodies, whether is it feasible to be shielded under the influence of the
attracting bodies etc. Answer to this question should help to understand the functional dependencies which
require to calculate motion of bodies under the force of gravity applied by other one. For example, to
calculate the motion and trajectory of planets and comets or ballistic trajectory of spheres within the force of
gravity of the Earth.
The law of gravitation defined by Isaac Newton, great scientist in the second half of 17century reflects a
universal property of the body viz. dependency of bodies’ motion from weight and distance thereof.
However, I. Newton himself and other subsequent physics during more than 300years could not explain
nature of forces that influence on bodies in accordance with this law.
Why, being such a simple law at first view, it could not be decently explained by physics during a long
time? It can be clarified by that in explaining the nature of forces occurred this law directs every effort to
search the reasons of gravity exactly towards the center of the Earth. During XVIII—XX centuries physics
searched a mechanism that could explain gravity.
Almost all his life Newton tried to understand the essence of gravitation. Firstly, he tried to prove that
the action at distance of gravity relies on ether presence which is fine body of variable density that pushes out
more coarse bodies and fills up pores of bodies thus leading to the said effect of gravitation. But numerous
questions were arisen to that no answers were found and subsequently he stopped trying to find out gravity
Over two centuries physics discussed two types of mechanisms that
explain gravitation occurrence, i.e. with ether and species (corpuscles).
However, those explanations were beneath valid criticism. A question to where
these species disappear after encountering with bodies constantly haunted the
mind of physics.
This gravitation mechanism can be simply demonstrated by an experiment
with balloons (See Fig.1). “Ether” is an air in a big balloon which applies
pressure on the small one but gravity of the latter is not occurred.
Various types of natural gravitation were studied (electrical, magnetic
etc.) however under different reasons had not find a decent explanation. And
this is fair as these types do not represent a reason for gravity occurred between
Finally, physics concluded that merely weight of a body defines the force of gravity. We know that
gravity of the Moon only in six times less though having its weight in 81times less than the Earth, and this
evidences that weight of body and gravitation do not interact.
Gravity is a consequence of gravity interrelations of bodies, i.e. the force created by gravitation. It can be
compared with induction of magnetic coil formed by directed electrons current. Well-known law of gravity
refers to calculation of centrifugal force of a definite weight and its countermeasures so gravity in this law
plays a supplementary role.
Interest to gravitation question has been raised long before Newton. In 4century A.C. Aristotle
expressed an opinion that all bodies are falling as they are directed towards the center of Universe while the
Earth is its center. Herewith it was considered that the heavier the body the faster it falls. Such idea was
supported for about 2 centuries and had been disproven by Galileo experiments of free falling of bodies.
Galileo proven that without resistance of air flow all bodies will fall down on Earth with equal acceleration.
Substantial contribution into the development of the ideas on universal gravity was made by I. Kepler by laws
of planet’s motion, although as well without explanation of reasons for gravity and gravitation occurrence. Al
these facts formed a baseline for I. Newton law of universal gravity in 1685. This law and three main
mechanical principles: inertness, proportional acceleration with applied force and inversely proportional to
weight, and principle of action and reaction: all these underlain modern classical or as frequently said
In Newton gravity theory as well as general relativity theory of Einstein gravitation constant is
considered as universal constant of nature which is not changed in space and in time and not depend from
physical and chemical properties of medium and gravitating masses. Such approaches cannot pretend to be a
valid theory as did not determine the nature of gravitation.
Inertness source or mechanism of internees is deemed as a cornerstone for validity of gravity theory
model. Once the problem of inertness has been resolved it would be possible to affirm that gravitation
model is correct and a way of understanding of many acts of nature would be open from structural
principles of a body trough emission of light.
Let see on the inertness conditions provided by existing theories. I. Newton gave a description of
gravitation by very simple formulas derived from Kepler’s laws on planets motion. The Netwon’s formulas are
gravitation – F = G ???????? ????????
inertness- F =a .m
Apparently these formulae do not give an indication of the gravitation and internees’ source. Newton
perfectly understood this.
Nowadays commonly acknowledged gravitation theory is space-time of Einstein’s (General Theory of
Relativity, herein under GTR). Still GTR in fact does not represent gravitation force however it was accepted
by Newton. Instead of the force a gravitation field was inserted in form described by metric tensor wherein
gravity field is characterized not by Newton’s scalar potential
U = G ???????? ????????
but ten functions. These functions determine pseudo-Riemannian space with interval of
ds2 = n(ik) . dx(i) . dx(k)
It is assumed that such description is accepted for gravitation field being formula of gravitation on GTR
while inertness is full equivalent of gravitation. It is described exactly by the same space-time interval. It is
rather difficult to give an affirmation that gravitation and inertness question is resolved by geometry. GTR
does not have a mechanism or nature of gravitation-inertness. It so far leads to continuous search of a realistic
mechanism of its nature.
This paper represents cosmic gravitation constant which is indicative for each gravitating body and
dependent on dimension of its core where thermonuclear synthesis occurs. Physical and chemical properties
of material medium are directly depend on gravitation constant.
Astronomic observations merely concern only fluctuations of electrical-magnetic fields (data-flow
computing, gamma-quantum, x-ray and light emission) and ultrarays. There is no yet other available
determination. Particularly, there are no means for detection of a gravitation waves’ carrier, no direct
measurements of gravitation and inertness forces are available. In recent years, neutrino tomography detection
method has been developed and gave a hope that astronomic observations will be expanded. Meanwhile
astronomic observations are essentially based on theoretical physics findings and are mainly clarified by
Newton gravitation-inertness, GTR and quantum gravitation theory.
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